Here is a typical story of the life and prosecution of an illegal:

Daily Advertiser (Wagga Wagga, NSW : 1911 - 1954) Wednesday 29 May 1929 page 6


At the Albury Police Court on Monday. Wu Foong, aged 44 years, vegetable hawker, was charged that, on  May 36, 'being an immigrant, he was required to and failed to pass a dictation test within the meaning of the Immigration Act, 1901-25 of the Commonwealth of Australia, and was a prohibited immigrant found within the Commonwealth of Australia in contravention of the said Act; 1901-23 the informant, James Gleeson, averred that the defendant was an immigrant who avoided an officer within the meaning of the Act. Detective Inspector Gleeson, of the Customs Department, Melbourne, said that in company with Inspector Constantine and Detective-Sergeant Cleaver, he interviewed the defendant at the Albury Police Station. He took a statement from him in writing, which was read over by him and interpreted to Foong by Mr. A. Tyeshing. Defenant said it was true and signed it. Witness produced the statement, which read as follows:—   


 ' My name is Wu Foong. I am 40 years of age, and was born in New York City, U.S.A. Lived for 21 years in America, but I never had an American birth certificate in my possession. My father's name was Ming Sing, and my mother's Ma Lee. They are both dead. I went from New York to Rotterdam, Holland. I don't know the name of the ship. Sometimes I worked below and sometimes 1 worked on   deck. I did not pay my passage. A Chinese working on the ship told me he would guarantee everything. I paid him about 300 American dollars. When I got there I left the vessel and went to a furnished house kept by a fat white lady. There were two other Chinese there. I stayed there for sev eral, weeks, waiting for the ship to go to Australia. When a ship did come a   Chinese named Chiang Fong told me to   come aboard and took me. When I went aboard it was night time and I stayed 'in the cabin. There were two bunks, and I slept in the lower. I never hid in the bottom of the ship. I worked sometimes, and as there were so many Chinese employed aboard I was not noticed. About July or August the ship left Rotterdam and called at a number of ports. We arrived in Syd ney on November 10 at night time. I waited a few hours, and went ashore with Chiang Fong to a Chinese boarding house. I stayed there a fortnight, and then went to Melbourne and work ed at the Hong Kong Cafe, Little Bourke-street, as a Chinese cook. Later I worked at the Canton Towers Cafe, and then worked as a gardener in Sydney. I went, to Perth for several months, and returned to Melbourne. I then went to Wangaratta for a few weeks and came to Albury last August, and have been hawking vegetables ever since. It is three years since 1 left New York. I had no authority to land ii Australia, and did not go to the customs officers or show myself to them.


Defendant told witness that he knew he was not entitled to stay in Australia, but if given a few weeks to sell his round he would pay his fare back to China. Witness then said: "I am a customs officer appointed to deal with immigrants. I am going to give you a test of 50 words and I want you to write. I shall read it twice. The first time I will read it over to you, and the second time will read a few words at a   time, and you must write it. If you | write it you will be permitted to remain here. If you fail you will be declared a prohibited immigrant, and I will have you deported. Here is a pencil and paper. Do you understand?'   Defendant said, 'Yes,' whereupon witness read the following passage, specially arranged by the department for this purpose: — 'The principle of the pulley is simply this — that it is easier for a person to carry a weight of ten pounds twenty yards than to carry twenty pounds ten yards. It is easier to carry a small weight a long way than to carry a great weight a short way.' Foong failed to write this, and witness charged him with being a prohibited immigrant.  Inspector Constantine corroborated this evidence. Speaking through the interpreter, Foong said: 'I would like to be allowed a little time — a fortnight, or a month — to wind up my business.' Detective Inspector Gleeson said he would make representations to the authorities at Canberra to favorably consider this. He had two bondsmen who would stake £100 each for him to remain here a month. Mr. Swiney, P.M., said that in accord ance with the Act the would have to sentence defendant. Defendant was then sentenced to six months' imprisonment.

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