Ah Newley and his wife Nellie


was naturalised as a British subject on 20.2.1883. He had Johnson's Reef Gold Mines Co N.L. tailing rights at the end of the tailing shoots. In 1913 he, his wife and daughter Ada visited China. Ada died in NZ after giving birth to a son, Arthur William Wong Tong. He was bought to Bendigo to live with his grandmother who went to China with him when he was 9.
First photo taken in 1913, the latter 10 years later.
b. 13.9.1870

 George Young born c. 1835 Guangdong Province, China Died c. December 1901

China Occupation mining manager Alternative Names•En Young Fun (full Chinese)
•Kee Yung (full Chinese (surname only))
•Zuo Zhi Yang (pinyin)
•左治羊 (simplified Chinese characters)
George Young arrived in Australia in 1856-7 and settled in Eaglehawk where he was the mining manger in a firm that extracted gold from tailings using cyanide. In 1917 it was recalled by the Eaglehawk manager of the Commercial Bank of Australia that he employed about 70 men in his firm. In 1884 he successfully applied through Sergent John Gleeson for Victorian naturalisation. His application was processed along with five others.
According to an article in the Australasian he was 'highly respected' in Eaglehawk for his 'uprightness and integrity'. The Bendigo Advertiser described him as being 'held in high esteem' and being 'a kind and benevolent man'. He made donations to the Bendigo Benevolent Asylum and Hospital on a number of occasions and was involved in organising the Chinese performance in the Bendigo Easter Fair in 1879.
In June 1900, after his elder brother's death in 1899, George Young returned to China at his father's request to manage the family property. His Chinese-born wife and six Australian-born children accompanied him. Prior to his departure a portrait of the Young family was published in the Australasian and given to prominent citizens of Eaglehawk. A banquet was also given by the citizens of Eaglehawk to see the family off and George Young was presented with an illuminated address.
The Bendigo Advertiser were quick to publish a glowing eulogy of his life after George Young died in China in December 1901.
Sources used to compile this entry: 'Prosperous Chinese miner [photograph]', Australasian, 31 March 1900, p. 703; Victorian Births, deaths and marriages; NAA(Vic), MP56/12, item 6; NAA(Vic), A712, 1884/B4266; NAA(Vic), B13/0, 1917/3260; Personal communication, Ray Wallace, 26 November 2004; Bendigo Advertiser, 23/5/1876, 23/12/1901 (courtesy Bendigo Golden Dragon Museum Bendigo Advertiser index).
Prepared by: Sophie Couchman, La Trobe University

Young, Clara (1888 - )
• Young, Frank (c. 1899 - )
• Young, George (c. 1835 - c. 1901) Father not born in Australia - aka Eng Young Fung
• Young, Harry (c. 1893 - )
• Young, Lily (1896 - )
• Young, Mary (1894 - )
• Young, Mrs (c. 1868 - ) - Mother may not have been born in Australia
• Young, Willie (1890 - )

Father George  Mother Wing SING
At Eaglehawk  1888  Reg#28843
Father Geo  Mother Foung YOUNG
At Eaglehawk 1899  Reg#2600

Father George  Mother Wing SING
At Eaglehawk 1893  Reg#3196

YOUNG Lillie
Father Geo  Mother Foung YOUNG
At Eaglehawk  1896  Reg#19390

Father Geo  Mother Mary YOUNG
At Eaglehawk  1894  Reg#28731

YOUNG William
Father Geo  Mother Wing SING
At Eaglehawk  1890  Reg#31889

The children's birth certificates would have the ages, places of birth of the parents along with the date and place of their marriage.

The Bendigo Advertiser 15 May 1900
A well-known and respected Chinese resident, Mr. George Young, is on the eve of taking a trip to China with his wife and family, and in our advertising' columns he says "good bye" and returns thanks to his old friends for kindness shown to him. A meeting of Mr. Young's friends will be held on "Wednesday night" to take steps to formally wish him farewell. He has been a colonist for over 50 years, and in this district has always shown a charitable and good natured interest in local movements.

The following departed Victoria on the EASTERN for Hong Kong via Ports 
YOUNG Clara 11 years   
YOUNG Frank 1   
YOUNG George 62 years    
YOUNG Harry 7 years   
YOUNG Lily 3 years   
YOUNG Mary 5 years   
YOUNG Nan 32 years      
YOUNG Willie  9 years   

The Bendigo Advertiser 13 Sep 1901
A few days ago a prominent resident of the borough received a letter from a former Chinese resident, named George Young, who is now residing in the interior of China. The writer resided in the borough for about 25 years, and when, he was going away, about two years ago, the residents presented him with an illuminated address as a mark of the respect in which he was held by them, he sends his best respects to all his friends, and says that one of his sons is engaged to be married. He states that if China was under British law it would be a good country. He also states that robbers are plentiful in China, and in addition to keeping watchmen day and night to protect him, he has to be always well armed himself.

The Bendigo Advertiser 23 Dec 1885 p.2

A Chinese Wedding.— Last Sunday afternoon some excitement prevailed at the Ironbark Chinese Camp, the occasion being a dinner given to his countrymen by Mr George Young, of Specimen Hill, Eaglehawk, and formerly hotelkeeper at the Camp. Mr Young was married in Melbourne about a fortnight ago to a Chinese lady, who has recently been brought out from China by the bridegroom's brother. The happy couple arrived in Sandhurst on Thursday last, and were present at the dinner on Sunday. Abont 200 sat down to the tables, including Mr .Tames Ah Poo, Chinese interpreter, who was untiring in his efforts to make the affair a success. After partaking of the edibles some speeches were indulged in, in the way of wishing Mr and Mrs Young future prosperity.

The company than separated.


Most Chinese Bendigonians belonged to the local branch of the Gee Hing Society, which was similar to friendly societies and masonic lodges of European origin, but they were also thinly scattered in less ethnically exclusive local organisations.

State and federal regulations kept Chinese from working underground in Bendigo’s quartz mines and made small-scale manufacture for those Chinese in the furniture business difficult, but they were tailings workers, vegetable suppliers and storekeepers.

The Chinese community in Bendigo was small. In 1871, of 30 000 Bendigonians, about 1200 were Chinese. This number had halved to 650 by 1901, and halved again to about 300 in 1911 over a period in which the total population of Bendigo increased to about 40 000 people.

 O'Hoy Family (Duk Hoy)

The O’Hoy family have a long and important connection to Bendigo. Grandfather Louey O’Hoy (1836-1920) left a family of some wealth in the village of Wah Lock Lea in Taishan, Guangdong in about 1861 to seek his fortune. By the 1880s, he had a share in the general store of Ack Goon, and was sufficiently wealthy to bring his second wife, Ah Kit, to join him in 1884 and significant enough in the local Chinese community to be part of the welcoming committee to the Chinese Commissioners on their visit to Bendigo in July 1887.

His son Que (1875-1964), born to his first wife and educated in Taishan, joined him in 1886, and took primary control of the business, then Sun Ack Goon, in 1903. For the local Chinese community, the store stocked daily provisions like rice, tobacco and fire-crackers, the store’s clerk would write letters and post remittances, and Que regularly posted bail for those in trouble with the law. The business also supplied herbalists across north-western Victoria, and in the 1930s exported flour to Hong Kong.

Louey’s six children to Ah Kit had some role in the operation of the business, but also followed other careers. Kim (1884-1930) taught at Canton Provincial College, and later worked at a shipping office in Hong Kong. Suey (1887-1947) also worked as a shipping agent in Hong Kong, but travelled regularly to Sydney and Bendigo on business trips. Quong (1889-1923) worked at Sun Ack Goon and lived in Hong Kong for his short life. Fee (1890-1968) worked at Sun Ack Goon and lived nearby. Little is known of Meelan (1895-1958) and Sheow (1897-1962), who both spent most of their lives in Hong Kong.

The terms of the Immigration Restriction Act made nurturing a family in Australia very difficult for each of the brothers. Que and Fee were most successful. As Fee, his wife and children were Australian-born they had much less difficulty with immigration restrictions. Que had three children to his first wife, who lived out her life in Wah Lock Lea, and seven to Poon Suey Gook, who was able to join him in Bendigo for short stays from 1920 and indefinitely from 1938. Kim and Suey fought to live in Australia with their families, but as their wives and children were not Australian-born, immigration officials were intractable. Grandfather Louey had at least twenty-three grandchildren. The family was always highly respected in both the local Chinese and European communities for their business acumen and honesty and generous donations of time and money to charity, in particular to the annual Easter Fair.

Sources used to compile this entry: Bendigo Golden Dragon Museum collection; interview with Dennis O'Hoy; interview with Mrs Myrtle Wong; various NAA immigration files.

Prepared by: Amanda Rasmussen, La Trobe University

Duk Hoy arrived in Victoria in about 1861 some five years after the major Victorian gold rushes.



The O’Hoy family store, a small country retail business selling specialised Chinese food goods to a niche market


Sun Ack Goon, one of the leading Chinese stores in Bendigo.


The O’Hoy family store, a small country retail business selling specialised Chinese food goods to a niche market

He returned occasionally to his first wife in the village, who tended he family’s land, fulfilled their ancestral duties and raised their son, Que, until he

reached twenty and joined his father in Bendigo. Duk Hoy’s second wife,



with Gee Coon and Gee Let. Deed of Partnership 1892 drawn up by Crabbe, Cohen and Kirby,

Dennis O’Hoy collection.

In 1883, Duk Hoy was sufficiently well-established to arrange for his

second wife, Ah Kit, to join him in Bendigo.69

That Ah Kit’s feet were not bound

suggests that she was a peasant village woman.

pictured beside him, also joined him in Bendigo where they had five sons and a daughter, pictured standing on the right. The sons joined shipping companies in

Hong Kong, and those six children lived predominantly in Hong Kong with their

families. Que, not pictured because he was supervising the operation of the

business in Bendigo, mirrored his father’s pattern by taking two wives. The first,

village-bound, pictured standing sixth from the left, gave him two daughters and a

son, Jan. Que’s second wife, Suey Gook, pictured standing fifth from the left,

lived in Bendigo for much of their married life, and had three sons and two

daughters there. Like his father and grand-father, Jan emigrated to join his father

in Bendigo, and took over much of the management of the business. Duk Hoy’s

other grand-children maintained connections to Hong Kong and Bendigo

From 1903, Duk Hoy had gradually handed over his assets to his eldest

son, Que, who arrived in Bendigo in 1894, aged twenty five.79 Que was educated

in the family village, Wah Lock Lea, married Lui Shee and conceived one

daughter before his first trip to Bendigo.80

Chinese community

The Chinese came to Australia from 1852, in part

driven out by conflict in southern China.

Sandhurst was one of six Victorian gold mining centres that attracted the Chinese, who were

mostly from Guangdong Province. Upon arrival

at Sandhurst, they took up residence in one

of several camps connected to a home district in China. By 1855, 5,325 Chinese lived in

nine camps in Sandhurst. The Chinese popula

tion decreased to 1,000 in 1859, but by 1868

had increased again to 3,500.


The Ironbark Chinese camp was the largest residential area and the focus of business activity

for Chinese people in the Sandhurst district. Camps were also located at Golden Gully,

Spring Gully, Back Creek, White Hills, Long Gully, Myers Flat, Peg Leg and Eaglehawk.



1866, 1,853 Chinese were recorded as alluvi

al gold miners, along with 4,870 European

alluvial miners and 4,318

European quartz miners.


The Chinese treated mine tailings and reworked gold sites abandoned by Europeans. Most

Chinese people in Sandhurst also came from fa

rming backgrounds, bringing their expertise in

market gardening with them.


Other skills translated to the goldfields included brick-

making. In 2005, an archaeological dig at

Thunder Street, North Bendigo, unearthed the

only known Chinese industrial brick-making kiln outside China.


Bricks made in the kiln,

owned by A’Fok, Fok Sing and Co., can be seen in the brick garden walls in Forest Street,



Chinese people were the target of discrimina

tory legislation. In 1855, the Commission

Appointed to Inquire into the Conditions of the Goldfields reported, amongst other matters,

on the question of Chinese immi

gration to the goldfields.






Figure 7 Chinese wall, Forest Street, Bend

igo, believed to date from the 1860s.

Source: Victorian Heritage Register online (VHR 2197)

As a result, the

Act to make provision for certain Immigrants

was passed that not only

controlled the amount of immigrants allowed on each ship arriving in Victoria, but it also

imposed a £10 entrance tax on the shipmaster.


To avoid this tax, most Chines

e migrants landed near Robe in South Australia and walked to

Dai Gum San

, or New Gold Mountain, as the goldfields of central Victoria were known.


Chinese diggers rallied in protest against th

e tax by forming the 'United Confederacy of

Chinese' throughout the goldfields of Victoria, including Sandhurst.


Over the five years

from 1856-61, local Chinese ‘framed their argu

ments in a more sophisticated manner’ in a

series of petitions against these discriminatory measures.


Restrictions remained in force and in 1857 South Australia also imposed a £10 poll tax on

Chinese people entering that colony. There were serious anti-Chinese riots at the Buckland

River diggings in north-east Victoria in 1857 and a number of Chinese relocated at this time

to Heathcote.


In addition, in 1859 the Victorian government introduced a residence tax.

Over these years, sustained resistance and tax evasion by Victorian Chinese, as well as

problems with enforcing the legislation, contributed to the removal of the taxes on Chinese

immigrants and residents in 1862 and 1863.


Despite their removal, these measures had

an impact: from 1861 to 1881, Victoria’s Chinese population decreased from 24,724 to




Shop and Factories Act

of 1896 made it difficult for Chinese manufacturers to

compete with Europeans and the

Immigration Restriction Act

of 1901, known as the White

Australia Policy, effectively halted Chinese immigration.

A strong Chinese presence nonetheless remained

in Bendigo. A contributing factor to this

ongoing presence was the willingness of Bendigo's Chinese immigrants to actively participate

in work including gold mining, market gardening and storekeeping, as well as local

community life beyond their own camps. In particular, over the period 1862 to 1882, when

immigration and taxation restri

ctions were relaxed or removed, the Chinese, through their






significant contribution to the city's economic and cultural life, challenged cultural

perceptions and came to be valued as an important part of the local community.


The Chinese also participated in

the annual Easter Fair procession to support the Bendigo

Benevolent Asylum. In 1892 Loong, the fa

mous Chinese dragon, first appeared in the

procession. The


described the ‘magnificent display’

put on by the Chinese community,

with ‘nearly a thousand’ people marching in brilliant costumes, with ‘queer musical

instruments, and quaint battle weapons’.


The dragon was 200 feet long and swayed about

amidst fireworks with the support of 80 men,

with rolling eyes, lolling tongue and a

‘generally ferocious appearance’.


It has been suggested that the popularity of

this annual spectacle and the charity fundraising

efforts, which were praised by prominent loca

l businessmen and newspapers of the day, was

part of the reason that the Chinese community found acceptance in Bendigo.


The importance of Chinese history on the goldfields is evidenced by the collections held in

the Golden Dragon Museum in Bendigo.

The museum was established by the Bendigo

Chinese Association and opened in 1991. In

2008, Loong, the dragon used in the Bendigo

Easter parades from 1892 to 1970 was placed on the Victorian Heritage Register, in

recognition of its significance. The collection of nineteenth century processional regalia held

by the museum is believed to be of international significance.

Related places

Chinese camps

Chinese Joss House

Chinese mining sites

Properties associated with Chinese activities

Chinese market gardens

Kilns for Chinese brick production and wall

s made of Chinese bricks, like Forest

Street, Bendigo

Sites and documents associated with Chinese protests

Chinese gravesites

Bendigo Chinese Association headquarters, Bridge Street

Golden Dragon Museum collection

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